I need a solution on – ndless Covid meanwhile, is exacerbating these trends in the medium and long term. If ridership remains dismal and transit budgets do not recover, what would you suggest as a solution to pay for needed transit infrastructure?-ndless Covid meanwhile, is exacerbating these trends in the medium and long term. If ridership remains dismal and transit budgets do not recover, what would you suggest as a solution to pay for needed transit infrastructure?

There are 2 main questions. First question has two options, you can choose whenever you want and please write 3-4 pages.
Second question has two sub questions, you can find it on the very bottom of the instructions, please answer those questions in 1-2 page.
So in total you’ll be answering 3 questions, 1 for the first question and 2 for the second question.
You can use any source you want, but sources below are preferable if you think that suits the questions:
Andrade, C. E. S. D., & D’Agosto, M. D. A. (2016). The Role of Rail Transit Systems in Reducing Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: The Case of The City of Rio de Janeiro. Sustainability, 8(2), 150.Sharma, R., & Newman, P. (2017). Urban rail and sustainable development key lessons from Hong Kong, New York, London and India for emerging cities. Transportation research procedia, 26, 92-105. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S2352146517308700/pdf?md5=50a231f3fc11217e7bdfbd9a9ca66fe8&pid=1-s2.0- S2352146517308700-main.pdfBhandari, K., Advani, M., Parida, P., & Gangopadhyay, S. (2014). Consideration of access and egress trips in carbon footprint estimation of public transport trips: case study of Delhi. Journal of Cleaner Production, 85, 234-240. https:// www.researchgate.net/profile/Kirti_Bhandari/publication/ 268747177_Consideration_of_access_and_egress_trips_in_carbon_footprint_estimatio n_of_public_transport_trips_case_study_of_Delhi/links/ 5480104b0cf25b80dd703de5.pdfChang, Z., & Phang, S. Y. (2017). Urban rail transit PPPs: lessons from East Asian cities. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 105, 106-122. http:// ink.library.smu.edu.sg/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3097&context=soe_researchChen, B. (2018). Rail transit development of the Pearl River Delta planning, obstacles and history. Urban Rail Transit, 4(1), 13-22. s40864-017-0074-0Surico. J. 5 Ways to Help Fund the MTA’s New York City Subway Fix. Citylab. Jan 2, 2019. funding-congestion-pricing/579262/
Cervero, Robert & Murakami, Jin. 2009. Rail and property development in Hong Kong: Experiences and extensions. Urban Studies 46: 2019-2043.Xu, W., Guthrie, A., Fan, Y., & Li, Y. (2017). Transit-oriented development in China: Literature review and evaluation of TOD potential across 50 Chinese cities. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 10(1), 743-762. download/922/955Jacobson, Justin and Ann Forsyth, 2008, Seven American TODs: Good practices for urban design in Transit-Oriented Development projects, Journal of Transport and Land Use, 1(2): 51-88.Cervero, R. 2006. Public Transport and Sustainable Urbanism: Global Lesson. University of Calif. Transportation Center.Ewing, Reid, 1997, Is Los Angeles-Style Sprawl Desirable? Journal of the American Planning Association, 63(1): 107-126.
West, Darrell M. 2016. Moving forward: Self-driving vehicles in China, Europe, Japan, Korea, and the United States. 2016/09/driverless-cars-2.pdfMillard-Ball, Adam. 2016. Pedestrians, Autonomous Vehicles, and Cities. Journal of Planning Education and Research 0739456X16675674.Celicia Kang. Self-Driving Cars Gain Powerful Ally: The Government. New York Times.Robert Moore. Is the Self Driving Car Un-American?. New York Magazine. Oct. 16, 2016.
Van Wee, B., Maat, K., & De Bont, C. (2012). Improving sustainability in urban areas: discussing the potential for transforming conventional car-based travel into electric mobility. European Planning Studies, 20(1), 95-110.Hildermeier, J, and Villareal, A. “Two ways of defining sustainable mobility: Autolib’and BeMobility.” Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 16, no. 3 (2014): 321-336.Walker, Alicia. Four Ways that Elon Musk’s New Tesla Plan Will Totally Reinvent Our Cities. Jul 21, 2016. Curbed. elon-musk-energy-cities
Flying cars/aviation:
Kasarda JD. Airport cities and the aerotropolis. 2006_07_Airport-Cities.pdf [Stand: 12.05. 2007]. 2006 Jul 26.Freestone, R. (2009). Planning, sustainability and airport-led urban development. International Planning Studies, 14(2), 161-176. http://www-tandfonline- com.proxy.library.nyu.edu/doi/full/10.1080/13563470903021217? scroll=top&needAccess=trueUber’s Flying Cars could arrive in LA by 2020. The Verge. Nov 2017, https:// www.theverge.com/2017/11/8/16613228/uber-flying-car-la-nasa-space-actDid Elon Musk Just say Tesla’s New Roadster Will Fly? Forbes. Nov 20, 2017. https:// www.forbes.com/sites/jimgorzelany/2017/11/20/did-musk-just-say-teslas-new- roadster-will-fly/
Nikitas, Alexandros, et al. “How can autonomous and connected vehicles, electromobility, BRT, hyperloop, shared use mobility and mobility-as-a-service shape transport futures for the context of smart cities?.” Urban Science 1.4 (2017): 36. urbansci-01-00036.pdf?filename=&attachment=1Walker, Alicia. Four Ways that Elon Musk’s New Tesla Plan Will Totally Reinvent Our Cities. Jul 21, 2016. Curbed. elon-musk-energy-cities
Question 1 (3-4 pages)YOU MAY CHOOSE TO ANSWER A OR BA. In our class, we discussed many aspects of sustainable transportation. However difficult to define, there are a number of characteristics that must be included. We also discussed the impact of technology on sustainability throughout history – from the rise of automobiles and the decline of public transport systems, to the impact of ridesharing and electric vehicles.In our discussion of recent technological innovations, we discussed electrification, network technology and aviation. Uber’s plans to launch a flying taxi service combines all of these innovations into one. The revolution in transport is promised to save us from congestion, and make getting around cities faster, easier and cheaper. According to Uber, the aerial vehicles, utilizing VTOL technology, will be operating by 2023, and will be “safe, quiet and environmentally conscious…and extend the reach of existing transportation options.” See e.g.
What is notably absent from these futurists is a deeper understanding of the way that past transportation innovations have impacted the growth and development of cities, including the environment and distribution of urban populations and investment.Given what you learned in the class, first define sustainable transportation. Then, assess what can we learn from the past, and what concerns you might have about how flying taxis could impact sustainable transportation in cities of the future. In addition, make sure you write about any recommendations you have to mitigate any potential harms.B.Electrification, mobile apps and the sharing economy have seriously disrupted transportation in the last few years and promise a complete transformation in the next decade. In what is called the “Micromobility” revolution, all kinds of new transportation technologies are flooding the streets of the world, providing new options for how to get around.E-scooters have taken other cities by storm, and companies like Bird and Lime provide on- demand, dockless scooter rides for $1 in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C., amongst other cities.In April 2020, the New York State legislature passed a budget that legalizes electric bikes and scooters – allowing all cities in the state to independently decide whether to permit them – with one exception – the bill still makes scooter sharing illegal in Manhattan. instead, NYC is piloting a project in the Bronx, with Bird, Lime and VeoRide each launching 1,000 scooters. ( bike-lanes-injuries-lime-bird-veo). In March 2022, DOT decided to expand the pilot after it debuted with a strong safety record. ( expand-e-scooter-pilot-in-the-bronx.shtml)However, Bird, the billion dollar scooter and bike share company, wants in on Manhattan. They know that you are an expert on Safe and Sustainable Transportation. They offer you a deal you cannot refuse – $2 million if you can write the two page summary briefing that can can convince the State of New York to allow the scooters in the other boroughs. They are providing an additional $20 million to spend for infrastructure to build out the scootershare system, but the rest of the funds will come from the city and state. The city is most interested in hearing how you would redesign the streets to handle this new form of transportation. What would you do and what arguments can you make that this is an essential and safe form of transport?
Question 2 (You must answer)More than two years after it initially surfaced, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to roil the world. In the midst of yet another surge, this afternoon, May, 12 2022, President Biden marked the 1 millionth American death due to covid.
What seemed like it would be a temporary inconvenience has drawn out, and yet as the end seems in sight, little is still known about the long term impact on cities and our transportation system.Many commentators believe our transportation landscape may never look the same.In a working paper that was written in Mid April 2020, MIT economist Jeffrey Harris argued that the subways seeded the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper, which was not peer reviewed, stated: “New York City’s multitentacled subway system was a major dissemination – if not the principal transmission vehicle – of coronavirus infection during the initial takeoff of the massive epidemic that became evident throughout the city during March 2020.” He uses maps of subway station entrances superimposed on zip-code level COVID incidence to demonstrate correlation.You can access the paper here: HarrisJE_WP2_COVID19_NYC_24-Apr-2020.pdfThe paper, however, was roundly criticized in much of the alternative transportation press and blogosphere.Streetsblog titled their response article “That MIT Study About the Subway Causing COVID Spread is Crap.” ( subway-causing-covid-spread-is-crap/)See also subway-infection-riders-mta/610159/ and the-coronavirus-pandemicHarris later published it in Frontiers in Public Health: 10.1101/2021.07.03.21259973v1;Regardless of the merits of that early debate, one thing is undoubtable: riders have only slowly returned to public transit. ( nyc-subway-ridership-hits-pandemic-high-passes-pre-omicron-peak). While ridership hit a pandemic high this week, ridership is still only about 55-60% pre-pandemic on the subway, about 6% on the buses, and even less on the commuter rail lines, while vehicle travel has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels. In fact, the last weekend and Monday 5/9/22, car travel has exceeded pre-pandemic levels. (See coronavirus/ridership). The subway shooting in April didn’t help ridership, but hasn’t seemed to have a long-lasting impact either. Nevertheless, fear of crime is also a factor transportation planners have tot are seriously.
The longer term impact is the shift to Work From Home (or anywhere). Richard Florida wrote an article (playing on Jane Jacob’s famous book title) titled “The Death and Life of the Central Business District.” ( the-post-pandemic-future-of-central-business-districts?srnd=citylab).His more recent take is that while downtowns may survive, there “will be a 20% reduction in the demand for central office space and a 5-to 10-percent hit to central business district economies.” ( pandemic-city/)The move to WFH is a significant threat to the viability of mass transit. As Elise Young, David Moran and Michelle Kate wrote in their Citylab article “Working From Home for Some Threatens Mass Transit for All:” ( 2021-05-12/working-from-home-has-fewer-commuters-on-buses-and-trains) “This crisis could stop a decades-long effort to reclaim cities from car-enabled sprawl, creatingdenser, walkable cores with businesses and housing.” Twinned with the technological changes of automation and electrification, we may yet be in for a long-term shift away from transit and sustainable cities.
A. Knowing what you do about sustainable transportation, what would you recommend transit agencies do to attempt to recover more quickly? What two or three top innovations from your peers’ COTD presentations or your own knowledge do you recommend MTA or other agencies implement to reduce the fear of disease and safety on public transit in the future? (From 1- 2 pages).B. Regardless of the disruption of COVID, public transit ridership has been declining in the past five years due to other factors, such as the rise of transportation network corporations like Uber and Lyft. ( transit-riders-coronavirus-bus-subway-public-funding/611203/). Endless Covid meanwhile, is exacerbating these trends in the medium and long term. If ridership remains dismal and transit budgets do not recover, what would you suggest as a solution to pay for needed transit infrastructure? (From 1-2 pages).
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