Discuss your thoughts about the article, who should pay the cost of care for preemies, and why. (150 words, 10 pts)

https://www.marchofdimes.org/mission/the-economic-and-societal-costs.aspx#Journal Reflection #1-3Discuss your thoughts about the article, who should pay the cost of care for preemies, and why. (150 words, 10 pts)Should cost of care be considered in determining value of life-saving treatment for patients? (250 words, 10 pts)Should an individual’s level of function be considered in determining life-saving treatment for patients? If so, who determines what “level of functioning” should be? (250 words, 10 pts)Journal Reflection #4-5Palliative care and hospice care provide dignified and supportive care during chronic illness and the dying process. Palliative care focuses specifically on providing supportive care for patients during chronic illness. This could include, but is not limited to, pain and symptom management, family support, art and music therapy, etc. It is ongoing comfort care for both patient and family in both inpatient and outpatient settings.Hospice care is more specifically targeted for end-of-life care, typically during the last six months of life. Hospice care is most often delivered at home, allowing the family to care for their loved one in the home until death. There are inpatient hospice facilities; however, patients typically residing in this type of facility have very little time remaining.The goal for both palliative or supportive care services and hospice is to provide comfort and dignity during chronic illness and death. Not all patients who are a part of a palliative care program will be a part of a hospice program. With today’s rapidly advancing medical developments, many people live long lives with chronic illness. Hence, the true-shared purpose for both palliative care and hospice is supporting the patient and family. Medical professionals have the privilege of sharing the most difficult and vulnerable times with their patients. To do this well, a medical professional must seek to understand how to provide dignity and respect to every patient, every time.How can you provide dignity and respect to a patient? (150 words, 10 pts)
What does it mean to die with dignity? (150 words, 10 pts)
Journal Reflection #6When discussing death and dying issues personally or professionally, there is great potential for disaster. This is because everyone views death, dying, dignity, value, and life differently based on their worldview, culture, and presumptions about life. As a medical worker, you must be able to set your assumptions aside and seek to advocate for your patient’s preferences. In the inpatient setting, an ethics consult can be helpful during times of disagreements between medical staff, family members, or staff and family.Ethics consultations should be initiated when an ethical problem exists in the care of a patient. Communication can be very difficult during these times; an ethics consult can help by bringing in an outside, third-party perspective about the situation. If a communication breakdown is not the issue, there can be a true ethical decision that needs made. Actual ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, or justice can be debated. For instance:Should a patient unable to breath on her own or who has been “trached” and ventilator-dependent be allowed to die?Should a patient have a feeding tube placed to sustain life when no signs of continued neurological development exist?Should a patient be allowed to refuse chemotherapy and radiation, knowing the cancer will grow and end his life?Should a pediatric patient be transplanted against his will?We could discuss endless types of circumstances where ethical decisions can be difficult to make. Ethics consults can be helpful in bringing clarity to the issue at hand, protecting the patient, and providing all possible outcomes to the situation. It is not the role of an ethics consult to make a decision. Instead, their role is to help clarify the question, problem, and all possible outcomes. An ethics consult can summon one person, an expert in ethics, to help with the ethical dilemma or it can summon an ethics committee. Ethics committees are multidisciplinary groups, including physicians, nurses, social workers, psychiatrists, educators, lawyers, administrators, and other people who have undergone advanced ethics training and education. Anyone can ask for an ethics consult.Protecting patient’s autonomy is a primary role for the nurse. How can initiating an ethics consult protect a patient’s autonomy? (150 words, 10 pts)Learning Activity 1You have been invited to sit on a committee that will decide who gets the next available organ transplant. Please rank each potential recipient as a utilitarian would from 1 to 5 (1 is the first candidate and 5 is the last person eligible to receive a transplant).Melissa is a 19-year-old high-school dropout. She works as a CNA (certified nursing assistant) at a local senior care facility. Melissa lives alone, has no close family, and no significant friends or attachments outside of work. The residents at the facility love Melissa and think she is very caring.Robert is a 31-year-old substitute teacher. Robert served in the Marines until he lost one arm and one leg in a combat situation. Robert has a fiancé and is getting married in two months. He is the track coach at the high school and runs a tutoring program for at-risk teenagers. Robert also serves as a deacon at the local church.Ethan is an 81-year-old retired grandfather with 16 grandchildren. Ethan and his beloved wife Lucy care for many of the grandchildren during the day so the children’s parents can work. Ethan and Lucy own a farm with lots of land. They run the local animal rescue and foster many disabled and abused pets. Recently Lucy was diagnosed with dementia, and Ethan keeps track of Lucy during her “spells” to keep her safe. All the children and grandchildren gather every Sunday for dinner at Ethan & Lucy’s house and cannot imagine life without either of them.Lucas is a 52-year-old undercover CIA agent. He is a language specialist who speaks more than a dozen languages. Lucas has led over 70 undercover operations in 30 years, saving hundreds of civilian lives. Lucas lives in a studio apartment outside of D.C. He has no immediate family, as he grew up in foster care.Serena is a 47-year-old lobbyist for feminist causes. Serena has an accomplished professional career and is currently in the running for the Nobel Peace Prize. Sara’s accomplishments have changed women’s health care access in third-world countries. Serena has helped over 1500 women receive preventative health care in developing nations. Serena’s friends and family adore her. She has a large support system.Melissa, Robert, Ethan, Lucas and Serena have all been given 30 days or less to live. Each person requires an immediate organ transplant to sustain life beyond that time frame. From a utilitarian perspective, rank them from one to five to decide who gets the first available organ. As a committee member, you understand the likelihood of more than two organs within a month is non-existent.Please explain why you ranked each person accordingly. (This learning activity is worth 25 pt.)